Introduction to types of dry batteries and rechargeable batteries


Yellow mignon battery

4.14 Battery and Power Supply
Battery import into EU countries should meet battery directive 2006/66/EC with
amendment 2013/56/EU for strictly control the concentration of Mercury (Hg)
and Cadmium (Cd).
Below are Battery type or power method being commonly use in remote control
Dry battery
a) AAA (R03, UM-4)
? Voltage 1.5V.
? Alkaline type (LR03) capacity about 1250 mAh depends on different brands
? Super Heavy Duty type capacity about 540 mAh.
b) AA (R06, UM-3) size
? Voltage 1.5V.
? Alkaline type (LR06) capacity about 2850 mAh depends on different brands
? Super Heavy Duty type capacity about 1100 mAh.
? It provides larger capacity than AAA and thus longer operation life.
c) CR2025 and CR2032 Lithium battery (Coin cell battery)
? Voltage 3V.
? Provides smaller size but very limit capacity and thus short life.
? CR2025 at about 150mAh and CR2032 about 220mAh.
d) Battery chemistry
? AAA, AA, C, D normally with following chemistry
? Zinc-carbon, the cheapest.
? Zinc-chloride, also known as heavy duty, inexpensive.
? Alkaline, moderate energy density, good for high and low drain uses.
? CR2025 and CR2032 with following chemistry
? Lithium (LiMnO2) used in high-drain devices or for long shelf life due to very
low rate of self discharge.
? Silver oxide has large capacity and voltage is stable. Its long life is worth the
high price. Many button type batteries, for example those used for watches,
are of this type.
Below shows different dry battery size,
Rechargeable Battery A rechargeable battery can be charged and discharged
many times, that oppose to dry battery supplied in fully charged and discarded
after use.
a) NiMH (Nickel-Metal Hydride)
? Output voltage at 1.2V.
? High energy capacity at 2200mAh.
? About 500 charging cycles.
? Charge efficiency 66%.
? Self discharge rate about 30% per month and lost capacity at about half year.
? They have less active materials so that safer than Li-ion batteries.
? Standard battery is cylindrical in shape with dimension at AAA, AA, 1/2 AA, 2/3
AA, A, B, C,D.
? Commodity NiMH rechargeable battery available in AAA, AA, and PP3 (9V) size
as substitution for dry battery.
? For higher capacity or output voltage, several cylindrical batteries will be arranged
in pack format.
For Li-ion and Li-Po vs NiMH rechargeable battery:
? They are smaller and lighter than NiMH battery and wider operation temperature
? Faster recharge about 1–3 hours than 10–12 hours for NiMH batteries.
b) Li-Ion (Lithium Ion)
? Normal output voltage at 3.7V.
? Energy capacity at about 1500mAh, higher capacity than Li-Po at lower price.
? About 1000 charging cycles
? Charge efficiency 99%
? Self discharge rate 5-10% per month.
? A bit longer life span than Li-Po.
? Only provide in cylindrical or rectangular shape.
c) Li-Po (Lithium Polymer)
? Widely adapted in smartphone as it is slightly safer than Li-ion and faster
recharging time.
? Normal output voltage at 3.7V.
? Energy capacity 15-20% lower than Li-ion.
? Charge efficiency 99%
? Self discharge rate 5% per month, better than Li-ion
? The shape is flexible and can make to 0.5mm thickness.
? Li-Po is 20% lighter than a Li-ion battery for an aluminum shell.